Recording university lectures through lecture capture systems is increasingly common. However, a single continuous audio recording is often unhelpful for users, who may wish to navigate quickly to a particular part of a lecture, or locate a specific lecture within a set of recordings.Links to the open source software toolkits, data sets and custom-written code used for the analysis, including the Wikipedia Similarity Crawler, are included in Appendices 2 and 3.
A transcript of the recording can enable faster navigation and searching. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) technologies may be used to create automated transcripts, to avoid the significant time and cost involved in manual transcription.
Low accuracy of ASR-generated transcripts may however limit their usefulness. In particular, ASR systems optimized for general speech recognition may not recognize the many technical or discipline-specific words occurring in university lectures. To improve the usefulness of ASR transcripts for the purposes of information retrieval (search) and navigating within recordings, the lexicon and language model used by the ASR engine may be dynamically adapted for the topic of each lecture.
A prototype is presented which uses the English Wikipedia as a semantically dense, large language corpus to generate a custom lexicon and language model for each lecture from a small set of keywords. Two strategies for extracting a topic-specific subset of Wikipedia articles are investigated: a naïve crawler which follows all article links from a set of seed articles produced by a Wikipedia search from the initial keywords, and a refinement which follows only links to articles sufficiently similar to the parent article. Pair-wise article similarity is computed from a pre-computed vector space model of Wikipedia article term scores generated using latent semantic indexing.
The CMU Sphinx4 ASR engine is used to generate transcripts from thirteen recorded lectures from Open Yale Courses, using the English HUB4 language model as a reference and the two topic-specific language models generated for each lecture from Wikipedia.
Three standard metrics – Perplexity, Word Error Rate and Word Correct Rate – are used to evaluate the extent to which the adapted language models improve the searchability of the resulting transcripts, and in particular improve the recognition of specialist words. Ranked Word Correct Rate is proposed as a new metric better aligned with the goals of improving transcript searchability and specialist word recognition.
Analysis of recognition performance shows that the language models derived using the similarity-based Wikipedia crawler outperform models created using the naïve crawler, and that transcripts using similarity-based language models have better perplexity and Ranked Word Correct Rate scores than those created using the HUB4 language model, but worse Word Error Rates.
It is concluded that English Wikipedia may successfully be used as a language resource for unsupervised topic adaptation of language models to improve recognition performance for better searchability of lecture recording transcripts, although possibly at the expense of other attributes such as readability.
Wednesday, 19 December 2012
Improving searchability of automatically transcribed lectures through dynamic language modelling
Here is the abstract of my recently completed Master's dissertation on topic-specific language modelling with Wikipedia to improve the accuracy of lecture recording transcriptions: